The cancers occurring most commonly in the patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are referred to as AIDS related cancers. Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are some of the most common AIDS related cancers. Cancers of throat, lungs, colon, skin, rectum, mouth and liver constitute less common type of AIDS related cancers. HIV patients are considered to be at a high risk of developing cancers. The exact link of AIDS and cancers is unknown but majorly depends on the weakened immune system.
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Kaposi sarcoma (KS) a skin cancer caused by a strain of human herpes virus and is prominent in patients with CD4 count less than 200-300/mm3. This type of cancer develops very quickly for the HIV/AIDS patients and appears as reddish or purplish spots or lesions generally develop first inside the mouth or on the skin. These lesions can develop anywhere on the body including internal organs. Chemotherapy and antiretroviral therapy are the most common treatment approaches recommended to improve the CD4 cells count.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common type of cancer associated with HIV/AIDS followed by Kaposi sarcoma. Primary central nervous system lymphoma and primary effusion lymphoma are the most common subtypes of NHL among others. These two subtypes affect lymph system in brain and spinal cord. According to few research studies it has been estimated that more than 8% of the HIV/AIDS patients develop NHL. Symptoms of this type of cancer include memory loss, headache, neurological change and confusion. Owing to its direct impact on brain, healthcare provider may recommend brain biopsy for the diagnosis and radiation therapy is the most common treatment for AIDS related CNS syndrome.
Cervical cancer is more prominent in the woman’s cervix (narrow part of the uterus). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), a condition characterized by precancerous cell growth in the cervix and is linked with human papilloma virus infection. Advanced CIN can result in invasive cervical cancer and the patients experience symptoms such as pain during sex, pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding and others. PAP tests can reveal cervical dysplasia or abnormal cell changes before they become malignant. Surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy constitutes the treatment approaches against cervical cancer.
Currently, tremendous research is focused on developing novel vaccine therapy and other treatment approaches to combat AIDS related cancers. The market for AIDS related cancers can be analyzed on the basis of the review of clinical trials for developing potential therapeutics, For instance, against cancer pain. Geographically, majority of the trials are conducted in the U.S. followed by European and Asia Pacific countries. Factors such as regulatory policies and clinical trial guidelines are crucial to ensure the commercialization of cancer related therapeutics.
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The major factors favoring the growth of market are increasing incidence of HIV infections in conjunction with the cancers across the globe. In addition, increasing participation of key market players towards developing novel treatment approaches along with elevated awareness levels will further propel the market growth. On the other hand, factors such as difficulties in deciphering the exact cause of AIDS related cancers and huge investments in clinical trials are some of the factors that might restrain the market growth. Bristol Myers Squibb Company, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Company Limited, Gilead Sciences, Inc., F.Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Pfizer, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc. are some of the companies engaged in the clinical trials.
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